```
T ≡ (\x. x y) z ≡ (\z. z y) z
```

+[Fussy note: the justification for counting `(\x. x y) z` as
+equivalent to `(\z. z y) z` is that when a lambda binds a set of
+occurrences, it doesn't matter which variable serves to carry out the
+binding. Either way, the function does the same thing and means the
+same thing. Look in the standard treatments for discussions of alpha
+equivalence for more detail.]
+
This:
T ~~> z y
@@ -23,21 +30,43 @@ Lambda expressions that have no free variables are known as **combinators**. Her
> **I** is defined to be `\x x`
-> **K** is defined to be `\x y. x`, That is, it throws away its second argument. So `K x` is a constant function from any (further) argument to `x`. ("K" for "constant".) Compare K to our definition of **true**.
+> **K** is defined to be `\x y. x`, That is, it throws away its
+ second argument. So `K x` is a constant function from any
+ (further) argument to `x`. ("K" for "constant".) Compare K
+ to our definition of **true**.
> **get-first** was our function for extracting the first element of an ordered pair: `\fst snd. fst`. Compare this to **K** and **true** as well.
> **get-second** was our function for extracting the second element of an ordered pair: `\fst snd. snd`. Compare this to our definition of **false**.
-> **ω** is defined to be: `\x. x x`
+> **ω** is defined to be: `\x. x x (\x. x x)`
It's possible to build a logical system equally powerful as the lambda calculus (and readily intertranslatable with it) using just combinators, considered as atomic operations. Such a language doesn't have any variables in it: not just no free variables, but no variables at all.
One can do that with a very spare set of basic combinators. These days the standard base is just three combinators: K and I from above, and also one more, **S**, which behaves the same as the lambda expression `\f g x. f x (g x)`. behaves. But it's possible to be even more minimalistic, and get by with only a single combinator. (And there are different single-combinator bases you can choose.)
+There are some well-known linguistic applications of Combinatory
+Logic, due to Anna Szabolcsi, Mark Steedman, and Pauline Jacobson.
+Szabolcsi supposed that the meanings of certain expressions could be
+insightfully expressed in the form of combinators. A couple more
+combinators:
+
+ **C** is defined to be: `\f x y. f y x` [swap arguments]
+
+ **W** is defined to be: `\f x . f x x` [duplicate argument]
+
+For instance, Szabolcsi argues that reflexive pronouns are argument
+duplicators.
+
+
+![Szabolcsi's analysis of *himself* as the duplicator combinator](szabolcsi-reflexive.png)
+
+
These systems are Turing complete. In other words: every computation we know how to describe can be represented in a logical system consisting of only a single primitive operation!
-Here's more to read about combinatorial logic:
+Here's more to read about combinatorial logic.
+Surely the most entertaining exposition is Smullyan's [[!wikipedia To_Mock_a_Mockingbird]].
+Other sources include
* [[!wikipedia Combinatory logic]] at Wikipedia
* [Combinatory logic](http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/logic-combinatory/) at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy