XGitUrl: http://lambda.jimpryor.net/git/gitweb.cgi?p=lambda.git;a=blobdiff_plain;f=week9.mdwn;h=546b2d2c8f10534c2afa178af9109881ad438bbf;hp=cdb4471fb7e003c718e038367cf49323824bffb4;hb=3ed8e56bf33b1c0cfa09b672abf26e9c397ea0f1;hpb=3d7f7c3e48fbc7e2495a6700cae426d063b68509
diff git a/week9.mdwn b/week9.mdwn
index cdb4471f..546b2d2c 100644
 a/week9.mdwn
+++ b/week9.mdwn
@@ 100,7 +100,13 @@ Scheme is similar. There are various sorts of reference cells available in Schem
(setbox! ycell 3)
(+ x (unbox ycell)))
(C has explicitstyle mutable variables, too, which it calls *pointers*. But simple variables in C are already mutable, in the implicit style.)
+C has explicitstyle mutable variables, too, which it calls *pointers*. But simple variables in C are already mutable, in the implicit style. Scheme also has both styles of mutation. In addition to the explicit boxes, Scheme also lets you mutate unboxed variables:
+
+ (begin
+ (define x 1)
+ (set! x 2)
+ x)
+ ; evaluates to 2
When dealing with explicitstyle mutation, there's a difference between the types and values of `ycell` and `!ycell` (or in Scheme, `(unbox ycell)`). The former has the type `int ref`: the variable `ycell` is assigned a reference cell that contains an `int`. The latter has the type `int`, and has whatever value is now stored in the relevant reference cell. In an implicitstyle framework though, we only have the resources to refer to the contents of the relevant reference cell. `y` in fragment [G] or the C snippet above has the type `int`, and only ever evaluates to `int` values.
@@ 320,7 +326,7 @@ Similarly:
Let's consider how to interpet our new syntactic forms `newref`, `deref`, and `setref`:
1. \[[newref starting_val]] should allocate a new reference cell in the store and insert `starting_val` into that cell. It should return some "key" or "index" or "pointer" to the newly created reference cell, so that we can do things like:
+1. When `expr` evaluates to `starting_val`, **newref expr** should allocate a new reference cell in the store and insert `starting_val` into that cell. It should return some "key" or "index" or "pointer" to the newly created reference cell, so that we can do things like:
let ycell = newref 1
in ...
@@ 345,7 +351,7 @@ Let's consider how to interpet our new syntactic forms `newref`, `deref`, and `s
in (Index new_index, s'')
...
2. When `expr` evaluates to a `store_index`, then `deref expr` should evaluate to whatever value is at that index in the current store. (If `expr` evaluates to a value of another type, `deref expr` is undefined.) In this operation, we don't change the store at all; we're just reading from it. So we'll return the same store back unchanged (assuming it wasn't changed during the evaluation of `expr`).
+2. When `expr` evaluates to a `store_index`, then **deref expr** should evaluate to whatever value is at that index in the current store. (If `expr` evaluates to a value of another type, `deref expr` is undefined.) In this operation, we don't change the store at all; we're just reading from it. So we'll return the same store back unchanged (assuming it wasn't changed during the evaluation of `expr`).
let rec eval expression g s =
match expression with
@@ 356,7 +362,7 @@ Let's consider how to interpet our new syntactic forms `newref`, `deref`, and `s
in (List.nth s' n, s')
...
3. When `expr1` evaluates to a `store_index` and `expr2` evaluates to an `int`, then `setref expr1 expr2` should have the effect of changing the store so that the reference cell at that index now contains that `int`. We have to make a decision about what value the `setref ...` call should itself evaluate to; OCaml makes this `()` but other choices are also possible. Here I'll just suppose we've got some appropriate value in the variable `dummy`.
+3. When `expr1` evaluates to a `store_index` and `expr2` evaluates to an `int`, then **setref expr1 expr2** should have the effect of changing the store so that the reference cell at that index now contains that `int`. We have to make a decision about what value the `setref ...` call should itself evaluate to; OCaml makes this `()` but other choices are also possible. Here I'll just suppose we've got some appropriate value in the variable `dummy`.
let rec eval expression g s =
match expression with
@@ 423,6 +429,8 @@ Here's how to implement these. We'll suppose that our assignment function is lis
(* evaluate expr2 using original assignment function and new store *)
in eval expr2 g s''
+Note: Chris uses this kind of machinery on the third page of the Nov 22 handout. Except he implements `Let` the way we here implement `Change`. And he adds an implementation of `Alias` (see below). Some minor differences: on his handout (and following Groenendijk, Stockhof and Veltman), he uses `r` and `g` where we use `g` and `s` respectively. Also, he implements his `r` with a function from `char` to `int`, instead of a `(char * int) list`, as we do here. It should be obvious how to translate between these. His implementation requires that variables always already have an associated peg. So that when we call `Let(c, expr1, expr2)` for the first time with `c`, there's a peg whose value is to be updated. That's easier to ensure when you implement the assignment as a function than as a `(char * int) list`.
+
##How to implement mutation with a State monad##
@@ 500,62 +508,73 @@ To get the whole process started, the complex computation so defined will need t
 FIXME 
 [H] ; *** aliasing ***
 let y be 2 in
 let x be y in
 let w alias y in
 (y, x, w) ==> (2, 2, 2)

 [I] ; mutation plus aliasing
 let y be 2 in
 let x be y in
 let w alias y in
 change y to 3 then
 (y, x, w) ==> (3, 2, 3)

 [J] let f be (lambda (y) > BODY) in ; a
 ... f (EXPRESSION) ...

 (lambda (y) > BODY) EXPRESSION

 let y be EXPRESSION in ; b
 ... BODY ...

 [K] ; *** passing "by reference" ***
 let f be (lambda (alias w) > ; ?
 BODY
 ) in
 ... f (y) ...

 let w alias y in ; d
 ... BODY ...

 [L] let f be (lambda (alias w) >
 change w to 2 then
 w + 2
 ) in
 let y be 1 in
 let z be f (y) in
 ; y is now 2, not 1
 (z, y) ==> (4, 2)

 [M] ; hyperevaluativity
 let h be 1 in
 let p be 1 in
 let f be (lambda (alias x, alias y) >
 ; contrast here: "let z be x + y + 1"
 change y to y + 1 then
 let z be x + y in
 change y to y  1 then
 z
 ) in
 (f (h, p), f (h, h))
 ==> (3, 4)

 Notice: h, p have same value (1), but f (h, p) and f (h, h) differ

+ [H] ; *** aliasing ***
+ let y be 2 in
+ let x be y in
+ let w alias y in
+ (y, x, w)
+ ; evaluates to (2, 2, 2)
+
+ [I] ; mutation plus aliasing
+ let y be 2 in
+ let x be y in
+ let w alias y in
+ change y to 3 then
+ (y, x, w)
+ ; evaluates to (3, 2, 3)
+
+ [J] ; as we already know, these are all equivalent:
+
+ let f be (lambda (y) > BODY) in ; #1
+ ... f (EXPRESSION) ...
+
+ (lambda (y) > BODY) EXPRESSION ; #2
+
+ let y be EXPRESSION in ; #3
+ ... BODY ...
Fine and Pryor on "coordinated contents" (see, e.g., [HyperEvaluativity](http://www.jimpryor.net/research/papers/HyperEvaluativity.txt))
+ [K] ; *** passing by reference ***
+ ; now think: "[J#1] is to [J#3] as [K#1] is to [K#2]"
+
+ ? ; #1
+
+ let w alias y in ; #2
+ ... BODY ...
+
+ ; We introduce a special syntactic form to supply
+ ; the missing ?
+
+ let f be (lambda (alias w) > ; #1
+ BODY
+ ) in
+ ... f (y) ...
+
+ [L] let f be (lambda (alias w) >
+ change w to 2 then
+ w + 2
+ ) in
+ let y be 1 in
+ let z be f (y) in
+ ; y is now 2, not 1
+ (z, y)
+ ; evaluates to (4, 2)
+
+ [M] ; hyperevaluativity
+ let h be 1 in
+ let p be 1 in
+ let f be (lambda (alias x, alias y) >
+ ; contrast here: "let z be x + y + 1"
+ change y to y + 1 then
+ let z be x + y in
+ change y to y  1 then
+ z
+ ) in
+ (f (h, p), f (h, h))
+ ; evaluates to (3, 4)
+
+Notice: in [M], `h` and `p` have same value (1), but `f (h, p)` and `f (h, h)` differ.
+
+See Pryor's "[HyperEvaluativity](http://www.jimpryor.net/research/papers/HyperEvaluativity.txt)".
##Four grades of mutation involvement##
@@ 567,7 +586,7 @@ Programming languages tend to provide a bunch of mutationrelated capabilities a
* One increment would be to add aliasing or passing by reference, as illustrated above. In the illustration, we relied on the combination of passing by reference and mutation to demonstrate how you could get different behavior depending on whether an argument was passed to a function by reference or instead passed in the more familiar way (called "passing by value"). However, it would be possible to have passing by reference in a language without having mutation. For it to make any difference whether an argument is passed by reference or by value, such a language would have to have some primitive predicates which are sensitive to whether their arguments are aliased or not. In Jim's paper linked above, he calls such predicates "hyperevaluative."
 The simplest such predicate we might call "hyperequals": `y hyperequals w` should evaluate to true only when the arguments `y` and `w` are aliased.
+ The simplest such predicate we might call "hyperequals": `y hyperequals w` should evaluate to true when and only when the arguments `y` and `w` are aliased.
* Another increment would be to add implicitstyle mutable variables, as we explained above. You could do this with or without also adding passingbyreference.
@@ 600,16 +619,31 @@ Programming languages tend to provide a bunch of mutationrelated capabilities a
in !xcell;;
(* evaluates to 1, not to 2 *)
 So we have here the basis for introducing a new kind of equality predicate into our language, which tests not for qualitative indiscernibility but for numerical equality. In OCaml this relation is expressed by the double equals `==`. In Scheme it's spelled `eq?` Computer scientists sometimes call this relation "physical equality". Using this equality predicate, our comparison of ycell and xcell will be `false`, even if they then happen to contain the same `int`.
+ So we have here the basis for introducing a new kind of equality predicate into our language, which tests not for qualitative indiscernibility but for numerical equality. In OCaml this relation is expressed by the double equals `==`. In Scheme it's spelled `eq?` Computer scientists sometimes call this relation "physical equality". Using this equality predicate, our comparison of `ycell` and `xcell` will be `false`, even if they then happen to contain the same `int`.
+
+ Isn't this interesting? Intuitively, elsewhere in math, you might think that qualitative indicernibility always suffices for numerical identity. Well, perhaps this needs discussion. In some sense the imaginary numbers ι and ι are qualitatively indiscernible, but numerically distinct. However, arguably they're not *fully* qualitatively indiscernible. They don't both bear all the same relations to ι for instance. But then, if we include numerical identity as a relation, then `ycell` and `xcell` don't both bear all the same relations to `ycell`, either. Yet there is still a useful sense in which they can be understood to be qualitatively equalat least, at a given stage in a computation.
+
+ Terminological note: in OCaml, `=` and `<>` express the qualitative (in)discernibility relations, also expressed in Scheme with `equal?`. In OCaml, `==` and `!=` express the numerical (non)identity relations, also expressed in Scheme with `eq?`. `=` also has other syntactic roles in OCaml, such as in the form `let x = value in ...`. In other languages, like C and Python, `=` is commonly used just for assignment (of either of the sorts we've now seen: `let x = value in ...` or `change x to value in ...`). The symbols `==` and `!=` are commonly used to express qualitative (in)discernibility in these languages. Python expresses numerical (non)identity with `is` and `is not`. What an unattractive mess. Don't get me started on Haskell (qualitative discernibility is `/=`) and Lua (physical (non)identity is `==` and `~=`).
+
+ Because of the particular way the numerical identity predicates are implemented in all of these languages, it doesn't quite match our conceptual expectations. For instance, For instance, if `ycell` is a reference cell, then `ref !ycell` will always be a numerically distinct reference cell containing the same value. We get this pattern of comparisons in OCaml:
 Isn't this interesting? Intuitively, elsewhere in math, you might think that qualitative indicernibility always suffices for numerical identity. Well, perhaps this needs discussion. In some sense the imaginary numbers ι and ι are qualitatively identical, but numerically distinct. However, arguably they're not *fully* qualitatively identical. They don't both bear all the same relations to ι for instance. But then, if we include numerical identity as a relation, then `ycell` and `xcell` don't both bear all the same relations to `ycell`, either. Yet there is still a useful sense in which they can be understood to be qualitatively equalat least, at a given stage in a computation.
+ ycell == ycell
+ ycell != ref !ycell (* true, these aren't numerically identical *)
 Terminological note: in OCaml, `=` and `<>` express the qualitative (in)discernibility relations, also expressed in Scheme with `equal?`. In OCaml, `==` and `!=` express the numerical (non)identity relations, also expressed in Scheme with `eq?`. `=` also has other syntactic roles in OCaml, such as in the form `let x = value in ...`. In other languages, like C and Python, `=` is commonly used just for assignment (of either of the sorts we've now seen: `let x = value in ...` or `change x to value in ...`). The symbols `==` and `!=` are commonly used to express qualitative (in)discernibility in these languages. Python expresses numerical (non)identity with `is` and `is not`. What an unattractive mess. Don't get me started on Haskell (qualitative nonidentity is `/=`) and Lua (physical (non)identity is `==` and `~=`).
+ ycell = ycell
+ ycell = ref !ycell (* true, they are qualitatively indiscernible *)
 Note that neither of the equality predicates here being considered are the same as the "hyperequals" predicate mentioned above. For example, in the following (fictional) language:
+ But now what about?
+
+ (0, 1, ycell) ? (0, 1, ycell)
+ (0, 1. ycell) ? (0, 1. ref !ycell)
+
+ You might expect the first pair to be numerically identical tooafter all, they involve the same structure (an immutable triple) each of whose components is numerically identical. But OCaml's "physical identity" predicate `==` does not detect that identity. It counts both of these comparisons as false. OCaml's `=` predicate does count the first pair as equal, but only because it's insensitive to numerical identity; it also counts the second pair as equal. This shows up in all the other languages I know, as well. In Python, `y = []; (0, 1, y) is (0, 1, y)` evaluates to false. In Racket, `(define y (box 1)) (eq? (cons 0 y) (cons 0 y))` also evaluates to false (and in Racket, unlike traditional Schemes, `cons` is creating immutable pairs). They chose an implementation for their numerical identity predicates that is especially efficient and does the right thing in the common cases, but doesn't quite match our mathematical expectations.
+
+ Additionally, note that none of the equality predicates so far considered is the same as the "hyperequals" predicate mentioned above. For example, in the following (fictional) language:
let ycell = ref 1
 in let xcell = ref 2
+ in let xcell = ref 1
in let wcell alias ycell
in let zcell = ycell
in ...
@@ 625,7 +659,7 @@ Programming languages tend to provide a bunch of mutationrelated capabilities a
xcell == wcell
xcell == zcell
 If we express qualitative identity using `=`, as OCaml does, then all of the salient comparisons would be true:
+ If we express qualitative indiscernibility using `=`, as OCaml does, then all of the salient comparisons would be true:
ycell = wcell
ycell = zcell
@@ 658,19 +692,20 @@ Programming languages tend to provide a bunch of mutationrelated capabilities a
in let (adder', setter') = factory 1
in ...
 Of course, in most languages you wouldn't be able to evaluate a comparison like `getter = getter'`, because in general the question whether two computations always return the same values for the same argument is not decidable. So typically languages don't even try to answer that question. However, it would still be true that `getter` and `getter'` (and `adder` and `adder'`) were extensionally equivalent.
+ Of course, in most languages you wouldn't be able to evaluate a comparison like `getter = getter'`, because in general the question whether two functions always return the same values for the same arguments is not decidable. So typically languages don't even try to answer that question. However, it would still be true that `getter` and `getter'` (and `adder` and `adder'`) were extensionally equivalent.
 However, they're not numerically identical, because by calling `setter 2` (but not calling `setter' 2`) we can mutate the function value `getter` (and `adder`) so that it's *no longer* numerically equivalent to `getter'` (or `adder'`).
+ However, they're not numerically identical, because by calling `setter 2` (but not calling `setter' 2`) we can mutate the function value `getter` (and `adder`) so that it's *no longer* qualitatively indiscernible from `getter'` (or `adder'`).
* A fourth grade of mutation involvement...
+* A fourth grade of mutation involvement: ( FIXME )
structured references
(a) if `a` and `b` are mutable variables that uncoordinatedly refer to numerically the same value
then mutating `b` won't affect `a` or its value
(b) if however their value has a mutable field `f`, then mutating `b.f` does
affect their shared value; will see a difference in what `a.f` now evaluates to
+ (c) examples: Scheme mutable pairs, OCaml mutable arrays or records
@@ 712,6 +747,12 @@ Programming languages tend to provide a bunch of mutationrelated capabilities a
We use the `None`/`Some factorial` option type here just as a way to ensure that the contents of `fact_cell` are of the same type both at the start and the end of the block.
+* Now would be a good time to go back and review some material from [[week1]], and seeing how much we've learned. There's discussion back then of declarative or functional languages versus languages using imperatival features, like mutation. Mutation is distinguished from shadowing. There's discussion of sequencing, and of what we mean by saying "order matters."
+
+ In point 7 of the Rosetta Stone discussion, the contrast between callbyname and callbyvalue evaluation order appears (though we don't yet call it that). We'll be discussing that more in coming weeks. In the [[damn]] example, continuations and other kinds of sideeffects (namely, printing) make an appearance. These too will be centerstage in coming weeks.
+
+* Now would also be a good time to read [[Advanced Topics/Calculator Improvements]]. This reviews the different systems discussed above, as well as other capabilities we can add to the calculators introduced in [week7](/reader_monad_for_variable_binding). We will be building off of that in coming weeks.
+
##Offsite Reading##