+Variables: `x`, `y`, `z`... +
+Abstract: `(λa M)` +
-Reduction/conversion/equality: +We'll tend to write `(λa M)` as just `(\a M)`, so we don't have to write out the markup code for the `λ`. You can yourself write `(λa M)` or `(\a M)` or `(lambda a M)`. -Lambda terms express recipes for combining terms into new terms. -The key operation in the lambda calculus is beta-conversion. +
+Application: `(M N)` +
-((\a M) N) ~~>_beta M{a := N} +Some authors reserve the term "term" for just variables and abstracts. We won't participate in that convention; we'll probably just say "term" and "expression" indiscriminately for expressions of any of these three forms. -The term on the left of the arrow is an application whose first -element is a lambda abstraction. (Such an application is called a -"redex".) The beta reduction rule says that a redex is -beta-equivalent to a term that is constructed by replacing every -(free) occurrence of a in M by a copy of N. For example, +Examples of expressions: -((\x x) z) ~~>_beta z -((\x (x x)) z) ~~>_beta (z z) -((\x x) (\y y)) ~~>_beta (\y y) + x + (y x) + (x x) + (\x y) + (\x x) + (\x (\y x)) + (x (\x x)) + ((\x (x x)) (\x (x x))) + +The lambda calculus has an associated proof theory. For now, we can regard the proof theory as having just one rule, called the rule of **beta-reduction** or "beta-contraction". Suppose you have some expression of the form: + + ((\a M) N) + +that is, an application of an abstract to some other expression. This compound form is called a **redex**, meaning it's a "beta-reducible expression." `(\a M)` is called the **head** of the redex; `N` is called the **argument**, and `M` is called the **body**. + +The rule of beta-reduction permits a transition from that expression to the following: + + M [a:=N] + +What this means is just `M`, with any *free occurrences* inside `M` of the variable `a` replaced with the term `N`. + +What is a free occurrence? + +> An occurrence of a variable `a` is **bound** in T if T has the form `(\a N)`. + +> If T has the form `(M N)`, any occurrences of `a` that are bound in `M` are also bound in T, and so too any occurrences of `a` that are bound in `N`. + +> An occurrence of a variable is **free** if it's not bound. -Beta reduction is only allowed to replace *free* occurrences of a variable. -An occurrence of a variable a is BOUND in T if T has the form (\a N). -If T has the form (M N), and the occurrence of a is in M, then a is -bound in T just in case a is bound in M; if the occurrence of a is in -N, than a is bound in T just in case a is bound in N. An occurrence -of a variable a is FREE in a term T iff it is not bound in T. For instance: -T = (x (\x (\y (x (y z))))) -The first occurrence of x in T is free. The second occurrence of x -immediately follows a lambda, and is bound. The third occurrence of x -occurs within a form that begins with "\x", so it is bound as well. -Both occurrences of y are bound, and the only occurrence of z is free. +> T is defined to be `(x (\x (\y (x (y z)))))` -Lambda terms represent functions. -All (recursively computable) functions can be represented by lambda -terms (the untyped lambda calculus is Turning complete). -For some lambda terms, it is easy to see what function they represent: +The first occurrence of `x` in T is free. The `\x` we won't regard as being an occurrence of `x`. The next occurrence of `x` occurs within a form that begins with `\x`, so it is bound as well. The occurrence of `y` is bound; and the occurrence of `z` is free. -(\x x) the identity function: given any argument M, this function -simply returns M: ((\x x) M) ~~>_beta M. +Here's an example of beta-reduction: -(\x (x x)) duplicates its argument: -((\x (x x)) M) ~~> (M M) + ((\x (y x)) z) -(\x (\y x)) throws away its second argument: -(((\x (\y x)) M) N) ~~> M +beta-reduces to: -and so on. + (y z) + +We'll write that like this: + + ((\x (y x)) z) ~~> (y z) + +Different authors use different notations. Some authors use the term "contraction" for a single reduction step, and reserve the term "reduction" for the reflexive transitive closure of that, that is, for zero or more reduction steps. Informally, it seems easiest to us to say "reduction" for one or more reduction steps. So when we write: + + M ~~> N + +We'll mean that you can get from M to N by one or more reduction steps. Hankin uses the symbol `→` for one-step contraction, and the symbol `↠` for zero-or-more step reduction. Hindley and Seldin use `⊳1` and `⊳`. + +When M and N are such that there's some P that M reduces to by zero or more steps, and that N also reduces to by zero or more steps, then we say that M and N are **beta-convertible**. We'll write that like this: + + M <~~> N -It is easy to see that distinct lambda terms can represent the same -function. For instance, (\x x) and (\y y) both express the same -function, namely, the identity function. +This is what plays the role of equality in the lambda calculus. Hankin uses the symbol `=` for this. So too do Hindley and Seldin. Personally, I keep confusing that with the relation to be described next, so let's use this notation instead. Note that `M <~~> N` doesn't mean that each of `M` and `N` are reducible to each other; that only holds when `M` and `N` are the same expression. (Or, with our convention of only saying "reducible" for one or more reduction steps, it never holds.) ------------------------------------------ -Dot notation: dot means "put a left paren here, and put the right +In the metatheory, it's also sometimes useful to talk about formulas that are syntactically equivalent *before any reductions take place*. Hankin uses the symbol `≡` for this. So too do Hindley and Seldin. We'll use that too, and will avoid using `=` when discussing metatheory for the lambda calculus. Instead we'll use `<~~>` as we said above. When we want to introduce a stipulative definition, we'll write it out longhand, as in: + +> T is defined to be `(M N)`. + +We'll regard the following two expressions: + + (\x (x y)) + + (\z (z y)) + +as syntactically equivalent, since they only involve a typographic change of a bound variable. Read Hankin section 2.3 for discussion of different attitudes one can take about this. + +Note that neither of those expressions are identical to: + + (\x (x w)) + +because here it's a free variable that's been changed. Nor are they identical to: + + (\y (y y)) + +because here the second occurrence of `y` is no longer free. + +There is plenty of discussion of this, and the fine points of how substitution works, in Hankin and in various of the tutorials we've linked to about the lambda calculus. We expect you have a good intuitive understanding of what to do already, though, even if you're not able to articulate it rigorously. + + +Shorthand +--------- + +The grammar we gave for the lambda calculus leads to some verbosity. There are several informal conventions in widespread use, which enable the language to be written more compactly. (If you like, you could instead articulate a formal grammar which incorporates these additional conventions. Instead of showing it to you, we'll leave it as an exercise for those so inclined.) + + +**Dot notation** Dot means "put a left paren here, and put the right paren as far the right as possible without creating unbalanced -parentheses". So (\x(\y(xy))) = \x\y.xy, and \x\y.(z y) x = -(\x(\y((z y) z))), but (\x\y.(z y)) x = ((\x(\y(z y))) x). +parentheses". So: + + (\x (\y (x y))) + +can be abbreviated as: + + (\x (\y. x y)) ------------------------------------------ +and: -Church figured out how to encode integers and arithmetic operations -using lambda terms. Here are the basics: + (\x (\y. (z y) z)) -0 = \f\x.fx -1 = \f\x.f(fx) -2 = \f\x.f(f(fx)) -3 = \f\x.f(f(f(fx))) -... +would abbreviate: -Adding two integers involves applying a special function + such that -(+ 1) 2 = 3. Here is a term that works for +: + (\x (\y ((z y) z))) -+ = \m\n\f\x.m(f((n f) x)) +This on the other hand: -So (+ 0) 0 = -(((\m\n\f\x.m(f((n f) x))) ;+ - \f\x.fx) ;0 - \f\x.fx) ;0 + (\x (\y. z y) z) -~~>_beta targeting m for beta conversion +would abbreviate: -((\n\f\x.[\f\x.fx](f((n f) x))) - \f\x.fx) + (\x (\y (z y)) z) -\f\x.[\f\x.fx](f(([\f\x.fx] f) x)) +**Parentheses** Outermost parentheses around applications can be dropped. Moreover, applications will associate to the left, so `M N P` will be understood as `((M N) P)`. Finally, you can drop parentheses around abstracts, but not when they're part of an application. So you can abbreviate: -\f\x.[\f\x.fx](f(fx)) + (\x. x y) -\f\x.\x.[f(fx)]x +as: -\f\x.f(fx) + \x. x y +but you should include the parentheses in: + (\x. x y) z ----------------------------------------------------- +and: -A concrete example: "damn" side effects + z (\x. x y) -1. Sentences have truth conditions. -2. If "John read the book" is true, then - John read something, - Someone read the book, - John did something to the book, - etc. -3. If "John read the damn book", - all the same entailments follow. - To a first approximation, "damn" does not affect at-issue truth - conditions. -4. "Damn" does contribute information about the attitude of the speaker - towards some aspect of the situation described by the sentence. +**Merging lambdas** An expression of the form `(\x (\y M))`, or equivalently, `(\x. \y. M)`, can be abbreviated as: + (\x y. M) +Similarly, `(\x (\y (\z M)))` can be abbreviated as: ------------------------------------------ -Old notes, no longer operative: + (\x y z. M) -1. Theoretical computer science is beautiful. - Google search for "anagram": Did you mean "nag a ram"? - Google search for "recursion": Did you mean "recursion"? +Lambda terms represent functions +-------------------------------- - Y = \f.(\x.f (x x)) (\x.f (x x)) +All (recursively computable) functions can be represented by lambda +terms (the untyped lambda calculus is Turing complete). For some lambda terms, it is easy to see what function they represent: + +> `(\x x)` represents the identity function: given any argument `M`, this function +simply returns `M`: `((\x x) M) ~~> M`. + +> `(\x (x x))` duplicates its argument: +`((\x (x x)) M) ~~> (M M)` + +> `(\x (\y x))` throws away its second argument: +`(((\x (\y x)) M) N) ~~> M` + +and so on. + +It is easy to see that distinct lambda expressions can represent the same +function, considered as a mapping from input to outputs. Obviously: + + (\x x) +and: -1. Understanding the meaning(use) of programming languages - helps understanding the meaning(use) of natural langauges + (\z z) - 1. Richard Montague. 1970. Universal Grammar. _Theoria_ 34:375--98. - "There is in my opinion no important theoretical difference - between natural languages and the artificial languages of - logicians; indeed, I consider it possible to comprehend the - syntax and semantics of both kinds of languages within a - single natural and mathematically precise theory." +both represent the same function, the identity function. However, we said above that we would be regarding these expressions as synactically equivalent, so they aren't yet really examples of *distinct* lambda expressions representing a single function. However, all three of these are distinct lambda expressions: - 2. Similarities: + (\y x. y x) (\z z) - Function/argument structure: - f(x) - kill(it) - pronominal binding: - x := x + 1 - John is his own worst enemy - Quantification: - foreach x in [1..10] print x - Print every number from 1 to 10 + (\x. (\z z) x) - 3. Possible differences: + (\z z) - Parentheses: - 3 * (4 + 7) - ?It was four plus seven that John computed 3 multiplied by - (compare: John computed 3 multiplied by four plus seven) - Ambiguity: - 3 * 4 + 7 - Time flies like and arrow, fruit flies like a banana. - Vagueness: - 3 * 4 - A cloud near the mountain - Unbounded numbers of distinct pronouns: - f(x1) + f(x2) + f(x3) + ... - He saw her put it in ... - [In ASL, dividing up the signing space...] - - -2. Standard methods in linguistics are limited. +yet when applied to any argument M, all of these will always return M. So they have the same extension. It's also true, though you may not yet be in a position to see, that no other function can differentiate between them when they're supplied as an argument to it. However, these expressions are all syntactically distinct. - 1. First-order predicate calculus +The first two expressions are *convertible*: in particular the first reduces to the second. So they can be regarded as proof-theoretically equivalent even though they're not syntactically identical. However, the proof theory we've given so far doesn't permit you to reduce the second expression to the third. So these lambda expressions are non-equivalent. - Invented for reasoning about mathematics (Frege's quantification) +There's an extension of the proof-theory we've presented so far which does permit this further move. And in that extended proof theory, all computable functions with the same extension do turn out to be equivalent (convertible). However, at that point, we still won't be working with the traditional mathematical notion of a function as a set of ordered pairs. One reason is that the latter but not the former permits uncomputable functions. A second reason is that the latter but not the former prohibits functions from applying to themselves. We discussed this some at the end of Monday's meeting (and further discussion is best pursued in person). - Alethic, order insensitive: phi & psi == psi & phi - But: John left and Mary left too /= Mary left too and John left - 2. Simply-typed lambda calculus - Can't express the Y combinator +Booleans and pairs +================== +Our definition of these is reviewed in [[Assignment1]]. -3. Meaning is computation. - 1. Semantics is programming +It's possible to do the assignment without using a Scheme interpreter, however +you should take this opportunity to [get Scheme installed on your +computer](/how_to_get_the_programming_languages_running_on_your_computer), and +[get started learning Scheme](/learning_scheme). It will help you test out +proposed answers to the assignment. - 2. Good programming is good semantics - 1. Example - 1. Programming technique +1. Declarative vs imperatival models of computation. +2. Variety of ways in which "order can matter." +3. Variety of meanings for "dynamic." +4. Schoenfinkel, Curry, Church: a brief history +5. Functions as "first-class values" +6. "Curried" functions + +1. Beta reduction +1. Encoding pairs (and triples and ...) +1. Encoding booleans + - Exceptions - throw (raise) - catch (handle) - 2. Application to linguistics - presupposition - expressives - Develop application: - fn application - divide by zero - test and repair - raise and handle - fn application - presupposition failure - build into meaning of innocent predicates? - expressives - throw - handle - resume computation -