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@@ 2,112 +2,23 @@
or: **What Philosophers and Linguists Can Learn From Theoretical Computer Science But Didn't Know To Ask**
This course is cotaught by [Chris Barker](http://homepages.nyu.edu/~cb125/) and [Jim Pryor](http://www.jimpryor.net/). Linguistics calls it "G61.3340002" and Philosophy calls it "G83.2296001."
The seminar meets on Mondays from 46, in
the Linguistics building at 10 Washington Place, in room 104 (back of the first floor).
One student session will be held every Wednesday from 34 on the
fourth floor at 10 Washington Place.

## Announcements ##
+This course is cotaught by [Chris Barker](http://homepages.nyu.edu/~cb125/) and [Jim Pryor](http://www.jimpryor.net/). Linguistics calls it "G61.3340" and Philosophy calls it "G83.2296"
+The seminar meets in spring 2015 on Thursdays from 4 until a bit before 7 (with a short break in the middle), in
+the Linguistics building at 10 Washington Place, in room 103 (front of the first floor).
* We've added a page on [[Translating between OCaml Scheme and Haskell]]

* We've added some [commentary](/hints/assignment_6_commentary) on some common issues in your solutions to [[Assignment6]].

* We've added a [[Monad Library]] for OCaml.

* We've posted a [[State Monad Tutorial]].

[[Older Announcements]]

##[[Lambda Evaluator]]##

Usable in your browser. It can help you check whether your answer to some of
the homework questions works correctly.

There is also now a [library](/lambda_library) of lambdacalculus
arithmetical and list operations, some relatively advanced.

##[[Monad Library]]##


## Lecture Notes and Assignments ##

(13 Sept) Lecture notes for [[Week1]]; [[Assignment1]].

> Topics: [[Applications]], including [[Damn]]; Basics of Lambda Calculus; Comparing Different Languages

(20 Sept) Lecture notes for [[Week2]]; [[Assignment2]].

> Topics: Reduction and Convertibility; Combinators; Evaluation Strategies and Normalization; Decidability; [[Lists and Numbers]]

(27 Sept) Lecture notes for [[Week3]]; [[Assignment3]];
an evaluator with the definitions used for homework 3
preloaded is available at [[assignment 3 evaluator]].

> Topics: [[Evaluation Order]]; Recursion with Fixed Point Combinators

(4 Oct) Lecture notes for [[Week4]]; [[Assignment4]].

> Topics: More on Fixed Points; Sets; Aborting List Traversals; [[Implementing Trees]]


(18 Oct, 25 Oct) Lecture notes for [[Week5]] and [[Week6]]; [[Assignment5]].

> Topics: Types, Polymorphism, Unit and Bottom

(1 Nov) Lecture notes for [[Week7]]; [[Assignment6]].

> Topics: Monads; [[Reader Monad for Variable Binding]]; [[Reader Monad for Intensionality]]

(8 Nov) Lecture notes for [[Week8]].

> Topics: Reader Monad for Jacobson's VariableFree Semantics

(15 Nov) Lecture notes for [[Week9]]; [[Assignment7]]. Everyone auditing in the class is encouraged to do this assignment, or at least work through the substantial "hints".

> Topics: Mutable Variables; Passing by Reference; [[State Monad Tutorial]] (added recently)

(22 Nov) Lecture notes for [[Week10]]
> Topics: Calculator Improvements, including mutation

(30 Nov) Lecture notes for [[Week11]]; [[Assignment8]].

> Topics: [[Tree and List Zippers]]; [[Coroutines and Aborts]]; [[From List Zippers to Continuations]]

(6 Dec) Lecture notes for [[Week12]]; [[Assignment9]].

> Topics: [[List Monad as Continuation Monad]]; [[Manipulating Trees with Monads]] (updated); [[Monad Transformers]] (added recently)

(13 Dec) Lecture notes for Week13; [[Assignment10]].

> Topics: [[CPS and Continuation Operators]]; CurryHoward

[[Advanced Topics]]

> Topics: Version 4 lists, Monads in Category Theory

##Scheme and OCaml##

See [below](#installing) for how to get the programming languages running on your computer.

* Links for help [[learning Scheme]]

* Links for help [[learning OCaml]]

* [[Translating between OCaml Scheme and Haskell]]


##[[Offsite Reading]]##
+## Announcements ##
There's lots of links here already to tutorials and encyclopedia entries about many of the notions we'll be dealing with.
+This wiki will be undergoing lots of changes throughout the semester, and particularly in these first few days as we get it set up, migrate over some of the content from the previous time
+we taught this course, and iron out various technical wrinkles. Please be patient.
+If you've eager to learn, though, you don't have to wait on us to be ready to serve you. You can go look at the [archived first version](http://lambda1.jimpryor.net) of this course. Just keep in mind that
+the text and links there haven't been updated.
## Course Overview ##
@@ 117,6 +28,7 @@ theoretical computer science and show how they can provide insight
into established philosophical and linguistic problems.
This is not a seminar about any particular technology or software.
+
Rather, it's about a variety of conceptual/logical ideas that have been
developed in computer science and that linguists and philosophers ought to
know, or may already be unknowingly trying to reinvent.
@@ 147,11 +59,14 @@ especially in the fields of functional programming and type theory.
Of necessity, this course will lay a lot of logical groundwork. But throughout
we'll be aiming to mix that groundwork with real cases
in our home subjects where these tools play central roles. Our aim for the
+in our home subjects where these tools play central roles.
+
+Our aim for the
course is to enable you to make these tools your own; to have enough
understanding of them to recognize them in use, use them yourself at least
in simple ways, and to be able to read more about them when appropriate.
+
Faculty and students from outside of NYU Linguistics and Philosophy are welcome
to audit, to the extent that this coheres well with the needs of our local
@@ 237,6 +152,7 @@ other. But these languages also have a lot in common, and if you're
familiar with one of them, it's not difficult to move between it and the
other.
+
## Recommended Books ##
It's not necessary to purchase these for the class. But they are good ways to get a more thorough and solid understanding of some of the more basic conceptual tools we'll be using.
+It's not *mandatory* to purchase these for the class. But they are good ways to get a more thorough and solid understanding of some of the more basic conceptual tools we'll be using. We especially recommend the first three of them.
* *An Introduction to Lambda Calculi for Computer Scientists*, by Chris
Hankin, currently $17 on
+Hankin, currently $18 paperback on
[Amazon](http://www.amazon.com/dp/0954300653).
* (Another good book covering the same ground as the Hankin book, but
more thoroughly, and in a more mathematical style, is *LambdaCalculus and Combinators:
an Introduction*, by J. Roger Hindley and Jonathan P. Seldin, currently $52 on [Amazon](http://www.amazon.com/dp/0521898854). If you choose to read
both the Hankin book and this book, you'll notice the authors made some different
terminological/notational choices. At first, this makes comprehension slightly slower,
but in the long run it's helpful because it makes the arbitrariness of those choices more salient.)

* (Another good book, covering some of the same ground as the previous two, but also delving much deeper into typed lambda calculi, is *Types and Programming Languages*, by Benjamin Pierce, currently $61 on [Amazon](http://www.amazon.com/dp/0262162091). This book has many examples in OCaml.)

* *The Little Schemer, Fourth Edition*, by Daniel P. Friedman and Matthias
Felleisen, currently $23 on [Amazon](http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0262560992).
+Felleisen, currently $29 paperback on [Amazon](http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0262560992).
This is a classic text introducing the gentle art of programming, using the
functional programming language Scheme. Many people love this book, but it has
an unusual dialog format that is not to everybody's taste. **Of particular
@@ 271,16 +184,25 @@ interest for this course** is the explanation of the Y combinator, available as
a free sample chapter [at the MIT Press web page for the
book](http://www.ccs.neu.edu/home/matthias/BTLS/).
* *The Seasoned Schemer*, also by Daniel P. Friedman and Matthias Felleisen, currently $28
on [Amazon](http://www.amazon.com/SeasonedSchemerDanielPFriedman/dp/026256100X)
+* *The Seasoned Schemer*, also by Daniel P. Friedman and Matthias Felleisen, currently $29 paperback
+on [Amazon](http://www.amazon.com/SeasonedSchemerDanielPFriedman/dp/026256100X). This is a sequel to The Little Schemer, and it focuses on mutation and continuations in Scheme. We will be covering those topics in the second half of the course.
* *The Little MLer*, by Matthias Felleisen and Daniel P. Friedman, currently $27
+* *The Little MLer*, by Matthias Felleisen and Daniel P. Friedman, currently $31 paperback / $29 kindle
on [Amazon](http://www.amazon.com/LittleMLerMatthiasFelleisen/dp/026256114X).
This covers some of the same introductory ground as The Little Schemer, but
this time in ML. It uses another dialect of ML (called SML), instead of OCaml, but there are only
superficial syntactic differences between these languages. [Here's a translation
manual between them](http://www.mpisws.org/~rossberg/smlvsocaml.html).
+This covers much of the same introductory ground as The Little Schemer, but
+this time in a dialect of ML. It doesn't use OCaml, the dialect we'll be working with, but instead another dialect of ML called SML. The syntactic differences between these languages is slight.
+([Here's a translation manual between them](http://www.mpisws.org/~rossberg/smlvsocaml.html).)
+Still, that does add an extra layer of interpretation, and you might as well just use The Little Schemer instead. Those of you who are already more comfortable with OCaml (or with Haskell) than with Scheme might consider working through this book instead of The Little Schemer; for the rest of you, or those of you who *want* practice with Scheme, go with The Little Schemer.
+
+* Another good book covering the same ground as the Hankin book, but
+more thoroughly, and in a more mathematical style, is *LambdaCalculus and Combinators:
+an Introduction*, by J. Roger Hindley and Jonathan P. Seldin, currently $74 hardback / $65 kindle on [Amazon](http://www.amazon.com/dp/0521898854).
+This book is substantial and though it doesn't presuppose any specific mathematical background knowledge, it will be a good choice only if you're already comfortable reading advanced math textbooks.
+If you choose to read both the Hankin book and this book, you'll notice the authors made some different
+terminological/notational choices. At first, this makes comprehension slightly slower,
+but in the long run it's helpful because it makes the arbitrariness of those choices more salient.
+* Another good book, covering some of the same ground as the Hankin, and the Hindley & Seldin, but delving deeper into typed lambda calculi, is *Types and Programming Languages*, by Benjamin Pierce, currently $77 hardback / $68 kindle on [Amazon](http://www.amazon.com/dp/0262162091). This book has many examples in OCaml.
