index: tweak book links
[lambda.git] / offsite_reading.mdwn
1 Many of these links are to Wikipedia. You can learn a lot from such articles,
2 so long as you remember they may sometimes mislead or make mistakes. However, I
3 hope at this point in your education you'll have learned to be a guarded reader
4 even of authoritative treatises by eminent authors. So you shouldn't need any
5 Wikipedia-specific warnings.
6
7 For most readers, many bits of reading we point you to will be hairy in one way
8 or another. It may be aimed at audiences with more programming experience; it
9 may be aimed at audiences with specific logical background you don't yet have;
10 it may be aimed at audiences familiar with technical areas in linguistics you're
11 first encountering. Or perhaps several of these at once. We hope you will
12 already have mastered the skill of leveraged reading: getting what you can out
13 of an article you don't fully understand, so that you can discuss it with the rest of
14 the group and hopefully get to a point where you can read it again and
15 get more out of. (Rinse and repeat.)
16
17 ## Functions ##
18
19 *       [[!wikipedia Higher-order function]]
20 *       [[!wikipedia First-class function]]
21 *       [[!wikipedia Currying]]
22
23 ## Functional vs imperative programming ##
24
25 *       [[!wikipedia Declarative programming]]
26 *       [[!wikipedia Functional programming]]
27 *       [[!wikipedia Purely functional]]
28 *       [[!wikipedia Referential transparency (computer science)]]
29 *       [[!wikipedia Imperative programming]]
30
31 ## General issues about variables and scope in programming languages ##
32
33 *       [[!wikipedia Variable (programming) desc="Variables"]]
34 *       [[!wikipedia Free variables and bound variables]]
35 *       [[!wikipedia Variable shadowing]]
36 *       [[!wikipedia Name binding]]
37 *       [[!wikipedia Name resolution]]
38 *       [[!wikipedia Parameter (computer science) desc="Function parameters"]]
39 *       [[!wikipedia Scope (programming) desc="Variable scope"]]
40 *       [[!wikipedia Closure (computer science) desc="Closures"]]
41
42 ##[[Learning Scheme]]##
43
44 *       [Try Scheme in your web browser](http://tryscheme.sourceforge.net/)
45
46 ## Untyped lambda calculus and combinatory logic ##
47
48 *       [[!wikipedia Lambda calculus]]
49 *       Our [[Lambda evaluator]]
50 *       [Chris Barker's Lambda Tutorial](http://homepages.nyu.edu/~cb125/Lambda)
51 *       [Lambda Animator](http://thyer.name/lambda-animator/)
52 *       [Penn lambda calculator](http://www.ling.upenn.edu/lambda/) Pedagogical software developed by Lucas Champollion, Josh Tauberer and Maribel Romero.<p>
53
54 <!-- Haskell Curry had ideas that he felt were validated upon reading a 1924 paper by M. Schönfinkel "Uber die Bausteine der mathematischen Logik" which used combinators in a similar way to his own ideas. Haskell then wrote "An analysis of logical substitution" which appeared in the American Journal of Mathematics in 1929. -->
55
56 *       [[!wikipedia Moses Schönfinkel]]
57 *       [[!wikipedia Haskell Curry]]
58 *       [[!wikipedia Alonzo Church]]<p>
59 *       [[!wikipedia Church encoding]]
60
61
62 *       [[!wikipedia Combinatory logic]]
63 *       [Combinatory logic](http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/logic-combinatory/) at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
64 *       [[!wikipedia SKI combinatory calculus]]
65 *       [[!wikipedia B,C,K,W system]]
66 *       Jeroen Fokker, "The Systematic Construction of a One-combinator Basis for Lambda-Terms" <cite>Formal Aspects of Computing</cite> 4 (1992), pp. 776-780.
67         <http://people.cs.uu.nl/jeroen/article/combinat/combinat.ps>
68 *       [Chris Barker's Iota and Jot](http://semarch.linguistics.fas.nyu.edu/barker/Iota/)<p>
69
70 *       [To Dissect a Mockingbird](http://dkeenan.com/Lambda/index.htm)
71 *       [Combinator Birds](http://www.angelfire.com/tx4/cus/combinator/birds.html)
72 *   [Les deux combinateurs et la totalite](http://www.paulbraffort.net/j_et_i/j_et_i.html) by Paul Braffort.
73
74 ## Evaluation Order ##
75
76 *       [[!wikipedia Evaluation strategy]]
77 *       [[!wikipedia Eager evaluation]]
78 *       [[!wikipedia Lazy evaluation]]
79 *       [[!wikipedia Strict programming language]]
80
81 ## Confluence, Normalization, Undecidability ##
82
83 *       [[!wikipedia Church-Rosser theorem]]
84 *       [[!wikipedia Normalization property]]
85 *       [[!wikipedia Turing completeness]]<p>
86 *       [Scooping the Loop Snooper](http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/teaching/0910/CompTheory/scooping.pdf), a proof of the undecidability of the halting problem in the style of Dr Seuss by Geoffrey K. Pullum
87
88
89 ## Recursion and the Y Combinator ##
90
91 *       [[!wikipedia Recursion (computer science) desc="Recursion"]]
92 *       [[!wikipedia Y combinator]]
93 *       [Chapter 9 from The Little Schemer](http://www.ccs.neu.edu/home/matthias/BTLS/sample.ps) on the Y Combinator "...and Again, and Again, and Again..."
94 *       [The Y combinator](http://mvanier.livejournal.com/2700.html)
95 *       [The Why of Y](http://www.dreamsongs.com/NewFiles/WhyOfY.pdf)
96 *       [The Y Combinator (Slight Return), or: How to Succeed at Recursion Without Really Recursing](http://mvanier.livejournal.com/2897.html)
97 *       [Y Combinator for Dysfunctional Non-Schemers](http://rayfd.wordpress.com/2007/05/06/y-combinator-for-dysfunctional-non-schemers/)
98 *       [The Y Combinator](http://www.ece.uc.edu/~franco/C511/html/Scheme/ycomb.html)
99 *       [The Y Combinator](http://dangermouse.brynmawr.edu/cs245/ycomb_jim.html) derives the applicative-order Y-combinator from scratch, in Scheme. This derivation is similar in flavor to the derivation found in The Little Schemer, but uses a slightly different starting approach...
100 *       [The church of the least fixed point, by Sans Pareil](http://www.springerlink.com/content/n4t2v573m58g2755/)
101
102
103 ## Types ##
104
105 *       [[!wikipedia Tagged union]]
106 *       [[!wikipedia Algebraic data type]]
107 *       [[!wikipedia Recursive data type]]
108 *       [[!wikipedia Pattern matching]]
109 *       [[!wikipedia Unit type]]
110 *       [[!wikipedia Bottom type]]
111 *       [[!wikipedia Typed lambda calculus]]
112 *       [[!wikipedia Simply typed lambda calculus]]
113 *       [Type Theory](http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/type-theory/) at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
114 *       [Church's Type Theory](http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/type-theory-church/) at the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
115 *       The [[!wikipedia Curry-Howard isomorphism]]
116 *       [The Curry-Howard correspondence in Haskell](http://www.thenewsh.com/~newsham/formal/curryhoward/)
117 *       [The Curry-Howard Isomorphism](http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Haskell/The_Curry-Howard_isomorphism) at Haskell wiki<p>
118 *       [[!wikipedia Type polymorphism]]
119 *       [[!wikipedia System F]]
120
121 ##[[Learning OCaml]]##
122
123
124 ## Side-effects / mutation ##
125
126 *       [[!wikipedia Side effect (computer science) desc="Side effects"]]
127 *       [[!wikipedia Reference (computer science) desc="References"]]
128 *       [[!wikipedia Pointer (computing) desc="Pointers"]]
129 *       [Pointers in OCaml](http://caml.inria.fr/resources/doc/guides/pointers.html)
130
131 ## Monads ##
132
133 *       [[!wikipedia Monad (functional programming) desc="Monads in Functional Programming"]]
134 *       [A Gentle Intro to Haskell: About Monads](http://www.haskell.org/tutorial/monads.html)
135 *       [Understanding Haskell Monads](http://ertes.de/articles/monads.html)
136 *       [The State Monad: a tutorial for the confused?](http://coder.bsimmons.name/blog/2009/10/the-state-monad-a-tutorial-for-the-confused/)
137 *       [Beyond Monads](http://blog.sigfpe.com/2009/02/beyond-monads.html)
138 *       [Simple Explanation of a Monad](http://math.stackexchange.com/questions/405/simple-explanation-of-a-monad)
139 *       [What is a Monad?](http://stackoverflow.com/questions/44965/what-is-a-monad)
140 *       [Can Anyone Explain Monads?](http://stackoverflow.com/questions/2366/can-anyone-explain-monads)
141 *       [Monad in Plain English...](http://stackoverflow.com/questions/2704652/monad-in-plain-english-for-the-oop-programmer-with-no-fp-background)
142 *       [Monad in non-programming terms](http://stackoverflow.com/questions/3261729/monad-in-non-programming-terms)
143 *       [Real World Haskell: chapter on Monads](http://book.realworldhaskell.org/read/monads.html)
144 *       [Learn You a Haskell for Great Good: chapter on Functors, Applicative Functors and Monoids](http://www.learnyouahaskell.com/functors-applicative-functors-and-monoids)
145 *       Monads are Elephants:
146 [Part 1](http://james-iry.blogspot.com/2007/09/monads-are-elephants-part-1.html)
147 [Part 2](http://james-iry.blogspot.com/2007/10/monads-are-elephants-part-2.html)
148 [Part 3](http://james-iry.blogspot.com/2007/10/monads-are-elephants-part-3.html)
149 [Part 4](http://james-iry.blogspot.com/2007/11/monads-are-elephants-part-4.html)
150 *       [Brian Beckman: Don't fear the Monad (67 minute video)](http://channel9.msdn.com/shows/Going+Deep/Brian-Beckman-Dont-fear-the-Monads/)
151 *       [A monad non-tutorial...or why you shouldn't ask what a monad is](http://strongtyped.blogspot.com/2010/01/monad-non-tutorial.html)
152 *       [The Mother of all Monads](http://blog.sigfpe.com/2008/12/mother-of-all-monads.html)
153 *       [You Could Have Invented Monads! (And Maybe You Already Have.)](http://blog.sigfpe.com/2006/08/you-could-have-invented-monads-and.html)
154 *       [Monads! (and Why Monad Tutorials Are All Awful)](http://ahamsandwich.wordpress.com/2007/07/26/monads-and-why-monad-tutorials-are-all-awful/)
155 *       [Of monads and spacesuits (archived)](http://www.iterasi.net/openviewer.aspx?sqrlitid=ixx7fcluvek_9lfolsxr_g)
156 *       [Haskell wikibook: Understanding monads](http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Haskell/Understanding_monads)
157 *       Haskell state monads: [part 1](http://mvanier.livejournal.com/1765.html) [part 2](http://mvanier.livejournal.com/1901.html)
158 *       [How not to explain Haskell monads](http://mvanier.livejournal.com/1205.html)
159 *       Yet Another Monad Tutorial: [part 1](http://mvanier.livejournal.com/3917.html) [part 2](http://mvanier.livejournal.com/4305.html)
160         [part 3](http://mvanier.livejournal.com/4586.html) [part 4](http://mvanier.livejournal.com/4647.html)
161 *       [Research Papers/Monads and Arrows](http://www.haskell.org/haskellwiki/Research_papers/Monads_and_arrows)
162 *       [Philip Wadler. Monads for Functional Programming](http://homepages.inf.ed.ac.uk/wadler/papers/marktoberdorf/baastad.pdf):
163 in M. Broy, editor, *Marktoberdorf Summer School on Program Design Calculi*, Springer Verlag, NATO ASI Series F: Computer and systems sciences, Volume 118, August 1992. Also in J. Jeuring and E. Meijer, editors, *Advanced Functional Programming*, Springer Verlag, LNCS 925, 1995. Some errata fixed August 2001.
164         The use of monads to structure functional programs is described. Monads provide a convenient framework for simulating effects found in other languages, such as global state, exception handling, output, or non-determinism. Three case studies are looked at in detail: how monads ease the modification of a simple evaluator; how monads act as the basis of a datatype of arrays subject to in-place update; and how monads can be used to build parsers.
165 *       [Philip Wadler. The essence of functional programming](http://homepages.inf.ed.ac.uk/wadler/papers/essence/essence.ps):
166 invited talk, *19'th Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages*, ACM Press, Albuquerque, January 1992.
167         This paper explores the use monads to structure functional programs. No prior knowledge of monads or category theory is required.
168         Monads increase the ease with which programs may be modified. They can mimic the effect of impure features such as exceptions, state, and continuations; and also provide effects not easily achieved with such features. The types of a program reflect which effects occur.
169         The first section is an extended example of the use of monads. A simple interpreter is modified to support various extra features: error messages, state, output, and non-deterministic choice. The second section describes the relation between monads and continuation-passing style. The third section sketches how monads are used in a compiler for Haskell that is written in Haskell.
170
171 ## Monads in Category Theory ##
172
173 *       [Category Theory at SEP](http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/category-theory/)
174 *       [[!wikipedia Category theory]]
175 *       [[!wikipedia Category (mathematics) desc="Category"]]
176 *       [[!wikipedia Morphism]]
177 *       [[!wikipedia Functor]]
178 *       [[!wikipedia Natural transformation]]
179 *       [[!wikipedia Monad (category theory) desc="Monads in category theory"]]
180 *       [Haskell/Category Theory](http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Haskell/Category_theory)
181 *       [Category Theory & Functional Programming](http://blog.mestan.fr/2009/01/09/category-theory-functional-programming/)
182 *       [Learning Haskell through Category Theory, and Adventuring in Category Land](http://dekudekuplex.wordpress.com/2009/01/16/learning-haskell-through-category-theory-and-adventuring-in-category-land-like-flatterland-only-about-categories/)
183 *       [Resources for learning practical category theory](http://mathoverflow.net/questions/903/resources-for-learning-practical-category-theory)
184 *       [A Partial Ordering of some Category Theory applied to Haskell](http://blog.sigfpe.com/2010/03/partial-ordering-of-some-category.html)
185
186
187 ## Continuations ##
188
189 *       [[!wikipedia Continuation]]
190 *       [[!wikipedia Continuation-passing style]]
191 *       [[!wikipedia Call-with-current-continuation]]
192 *       [Intro to call/cc](http://community.schemewiki.org/?call-with-current-continuation) at SchemeWiki
193 *       [Call With Current Continuation](http://www.c2.com/cgi/wiki?CallWithCurrentContinuation)
194 *       [Continuations Made Simple and Illustrated](http://www.ps.uni-saarland.de/~duchier/python/continuations.html)
195 *       [Continuation kata](http://programming-musings.org/2006/02/12/continuation-kata/)
196 *       [Understanding continuations](http://keithdevens.com/weblog/archive/2004/Jul/11/continuations) [Commentary](http://lambda-the-ultimate.org/node/86)
197 *       [Continuations In Scheme](http://tech.phillipwright.com/2010/05/23/continuations-in-scheme/)
198 *       [Understanding Scheme Continuations](http://sanjaypande.blogspot.com/2004/06/understanding-scheme-continuations.html). This is tagged "Part I" but I think there's no further parts.
199 *       [Continuations for Curmudgeons](http://www.intertwingly.net/blog/2005/04/13/Continuations-for-Curmudgeons) [Commentary](http://lambda-the-ultimate.org/node/643)
200 *       [Haskell wiki on Continuations](http://www.haskell.org/haskellwiki/Continuation)<p>
201 *       [[!wikipedia Delimited continuation]]
202 *       [Composable Continuations Tutorial](http://community.schemewiki.org/?composable-continuations-tutorial) at SchemeWiki
203 *       [Post by Ken](http://lambda-the-ultimate.org/node/1197#comment-12927) on Lambda the Ultimate explaining difference between undelimited and delimited continuations
204 *       [shift, reset and streams](http://chneukirchen.org/blog/archive/2005/04/shift-reset-and-streams.html)
205 *       [guile and delimited continuations](http://www.wingolog.org/archives/2010/02/26/guile-and-delimited-continuations)
206 *       [Delimited continuations in Scala](http://blog.richdougherty.com/2009/02/delimited-continuations-in-scala_24.html)
207 *       [Delimited Continuations Explained (in Scala)](http://dcsobral.blogspot.com/2009/07/delimited-continuations-explained-in.html)
208 *       [Partial Continuations](http://www.bluishcoder.co.nz/articles/scheme/partial-continuations.html)
209 *       Delimited Continuations in MzScheme:
210 [Part 1](http://schemekeys.blogspot.com/2006/11/prompts-their-interaction-with-dynamic.html)
211 [Part 2](http://schemekeys.blogspot.com/2006/12/delimited-continuations-in-mzscheme.html)
212 [Part 3](http://schemekeys.blogspot.com/2007/01/going-further-with-primitives.html)
213 [Part 4](http://schemekeys.blogspot.com/2007/01/odd-and-ends.html)<p>
214 *       [Online Bibliography of Scheme Research: Continuations and Continuation Passing Style](http://library.readscheme.org/page6.html)
215 *       [Delimited continuations in natural language semantics](http://okmij.org/ftp/gengo/)
216
217
218 ## Linear Logic ##
219
220 *       [[!wikipedia Linear logic]]
221
222